Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs): Advances and Challenges

Polymers (Basel). 2021 Sep 10;13(18):3064. doi: 10.3390/polym13183064.

ABSTRACT

The study of the electrochemical catalyst conversion of renewable electricity and carbon oxides into chemical fuels attracts a great deal of attention by different researchers. The main role of this process is in mitigating the worldwide energy crisis through a closed technological carbon cycle, where chemical fuels, such as hydrogen, are stored and reconverted to electricity via electrochemical reaction processes in fuel cells. The scientific community focuses its efforts on the development of high-performance polymeric membranes together with nanomaterials with high catalytic activity and stability in order to reduce the platinum group metal applied as a cathode to build stacks of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) to work at low and moderate temperatures. The design of new conductive membranes and nanoparticles (NPs) whose morphology directly affects their catalytic properties is of utmost importance. Nanoparticle morphologies, like cubes, octahedrons, icosahedrons, bipyramids, plates, and polyhedrons, among others, are widely studied for catalysis applications. The recent progress around the high catalytic activity has focused on the stabilizing agents and their potential impact on nanomaterial synthesis to induce changes in the morphology of NPs.

PMID:34577965 | PMC:PMC8468942 | DOI:10.3390/polym13183064

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