Bioact Mater. 2023 Aug 18;31:284-297. doi: 10.1016/j.bioactmat.2023.08.005. eCollection 2024 Jan.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)-infected chronic osteomyelitis (COM) is one of the most devastating infectious diseases with a high recurrence rate, often leading to amputation and even death. It is incurable by all the current strategies involving the clinical use of radical debridement and systemic intravenous antibiotics. Here, we reported on a microwave (MW)-assisted therapy for COM by constructing a heterojunction formed by flake nanoflower-shaped molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tubular carbon nanotubes (CNTs). This composite could achieve a combination of MW thermal therapy (MTT) and MW dynamic therapy (MDT) to accurately and rapidly treat COM with deep tissue infection. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that MoS2/CNTs were effective in non-invasively treating S. aureus-induced COM due to the heat and reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced under MW irradiation. The mechanism of heat and ROS generation was explained by MW network vector analysis, density of states (DOS), oxygen adsorption energy, differential charge and finite element (FEM) under MW irradiation. Since the Fermi layer was mainly contributed by the Mo-4d and C-2P orbitals, MoS2/CNTs could store a large amount of charge and easily release more electrons. In addition, charge accumulation and dissipation motion were strong on the surface of and inside MoS2/CNTs because of electromagnetic hot spots, resulting in the spilling out of a great deal of high-energy electrons. Due to the low oxygen adsorption energy of MoS2/CNTs-O2, these high-energy electrons combined further with the adsorbed oxygen to produce ROS.