Recent Advances in Cell and Functional Biomaterial Treatment for Spinal Cord Injury

Biomed Res Int. 2022 Aug 8;2022:5079153. doi: 10.1155/2022/5079153. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating central nervous system disease caused by accidental events, resulting in loss of sensory and motor function. Considering the multiple effects of primary and secondary injuries after spinal cord injury, including oxidative stress, tissue apoptosis, inflammatory response, and neuronal autophagy, it is crucial to understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, local microenvironment changes, and neural tissue functional recovery for preparing novel treatment strategies. Treatment based on cell transplantation has become the forefront of spinal cord injury therapy. The transplanted cells provide physical and nutritional support for the damaged tissue. At the same time, the implantation of biomaterials with specific biological functions at the site of the SCI has also been proved to improve the local inhibitory microenvironment and promote axonal regeneration, etc. The combined transplantation of cells and functional biomaterials for SCI treatment can result in greater neuroprotective and regenerative effects by regulating cell differentiation, enhancing cell survival, and providing physical and directional support for axon regeneration and neural circuit remodeling. This article reviews the pathophysiology of the spinal cord, changes in the microenvironment after injury, and the mechanisms and strategies for spinal cord regeneration and repair. The article will focus on summarizing and discussing the latest intervention models based on cell and functional biomaterial transplantation and the latest progress in combinational therapies in SCI repair. Finally, we propose the future prospects and challenges of current treatment regimens for SCI repair, to provide references for scientists and clinicians to seek better SCI repair strategies in the future.

PMID:35978649 | PMC:PMC9377911 | DOI:10.1155/2022/5079153

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