ACS Mater Au. 2022 Sep 14;2(5):525-551. doi: 10.1021/acsmaterialsau.2c00040. Epub 2022 Aug 8.
Implant-associated infections arising from biofilm development are known to have detrimental effects with compromised quality of life for the patients, implying a progressing issue in healthcare. It has been a struggle for more than 50 years for the biomaterials field to achieve long-term success of medical implants by discouraging bacterial and protein adhesion without adversely affecting the surrounding tissue and cell functions. However, the rate of infections associated with medical devices is continuously escalating because of the intricate nature of bacterial biofilms, antibiotic resistance, and the lack of ability of monofunctional antibacterial materials to prevent the colonization of bacteria on the device surface. For this reason, many current strategies are focused on the development of novel antibacterial surfaces with dual antimicrobial functionality. These surfaces are based on the combination of two components into one system that can eradicate attached bacteria (antibiotics, peptides, nitric oxide, ammonium salts, light, etc.) and also resist or release adhesion of bacteria (hydrophilic polymers, zwitterionic, antiadhesive, topography, bioinspired surfaces, etc.). This review aims to outline the progress made in the field of biomedical engineering and biomaterials for the development of multifunctional antibacterial biomedical devices. Additionally, principles for material design and fabrication are highlighted using characteristic examples, with a special focus on combinational nitric oxide-releasing biomedical interfaces. A brief perspective on future research directions for engineering of dual-function antibacterial surfaces is also presented.