RSC Adv. 2022 Jun 9;12(27):17104-17137. doi: 10.1039/d2ra01831d. eCollection 2022 Jun 7.
Globally, textile dyeing and manufacturing are one of the largest industrial units releasing huge amount of wastewater (WW) with refractory compounds such as dyes and pigments. Currently, wastewater treatment has been viewed as an industrial opportunity for rejuvenating fresh water resources and it is highly required in water stressed countries. This comprehensive review highlights an overall concept and in-depth knowledge on integrated, cost-effective cross-disciplinary solutions for domestic and industrial (textile dyes) WW and for harnessing renewable energy. This basic concept entails parallel or sequential modes of treating two chemically different WW i.e., domestic and industrial in the same system. In this case, contemporary advancement in MFC/MEC (METs) based systems towards Microbial-Electro-Fenton Technology (MEFT) revealed a substantial emerging scope and opportunity. Principally the said technology is based upon previously established anaerobic digestion and electro-chemical (photo/UV/Fenton) processes in the disciplines of microbial biotechnology and electro-chemistry. It holds an added advantage to all previously establish technologies in terms of treatment and energy efficiency, minimal toxicity and sludge waste, and environmental sustainable. This review typically described different dyes and their ultimate fate in environment and recently developed hierarchy of MEFS. It revealed detail mechanisms and degradation rate of dyes typically in cathodic Fenton system under batch and continuous modes of different MEF reactors. Moreover, it described cost-effectiveness of the said technology in terms of energy budget (production and consumption), and the limitations related to reactor fabrication cost and design for future upgradation to large scale application.