Polymers (Basel). 2023 Jan 29;15(3):676. doi: 10.3390/polym15030676.
Polysaccharides, being biocompatible and biodegradable polymers, are highly attractive as materials for protein delivery systems. However, protein-polysaccharide interactions may lead to protein structural transformation. In the current study, we analyze the structural adjustment of a homotetrameric protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), upon its interactions with both flexible coil chain and the rigid helix of κ-carrageenan. FTIR spectroscopy was used to probe the secondary structures of both protein and polysaccharide. Electrostatically driven protein-polysaccharide interactions in dilute solutions resulted in an insoluble complex formation with a constant κ-carrageenan/GAPDH ratio of 0.2, which amounts to 75 disaccharide units per mole of protein tetramer. Upon interactions with both coiled and helical polysaccharides, a weakening of the intersubunit interactions was revealed and attributed to a partial GAPDH tetramer dissociation. In turn, protein distorted the helical conformation of κ-carrageenan when co-gelled. Molecular modeling showed the energy favorable interactions between κ-carrageenan and GAPDH at different levels of oligomerization. κ-Carrageenan binds in the region of the NAD-binding groove and the S-loop in OR contact, which may stabilize the OP dimers. The obtained results highlight the mutual conformational adjustment of oligomeric GAPDH and κ-carrageenan upon interaction and the stabilization of GAPDH’s dissociated forms upon immobilization in polysaccharide gels.
PMID:36771978 | PMC:PMC9918977 | DOI:10.3390/polym15030676