PLoS One. 2023 Sep 11;18(9):e0291463. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0291463. eCollection 2023.
The integration of renewable sources (RSs) and the widespread deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) has transitioned from a luxury to a necessity in modern power systems. This results from the sharp increase in electric power demand and public awareness of switching to green energy. However, in addition to load fluctuations and changes in system parameters, these RSs and EVs negatively impact the load frequency (LF). This work presents a LF control for a modern multi-area power system incorporating photovoltaic (PV) and EV chargers. The proposed controller primarily utilizes EV chargers within modern power systems. This approach offers the advantage of using the already present components instead of introducing new ones. The proposed controller comprises the ecological optimization approach (ECO) and the integral controller (I). Both of these components are designed for autonomous vehicle-to-grid (V2G) devices. The proposed control technique is applied to a three-area power system, where the V2G scheme is located in Area-1. Variations in the load, PV power generated, and system parameters are considered to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed (I+ECO+V2G) controller for controlling the LF. To assess the performance of the proposed I+ECO+V2G system, a comparative analysis is conducted to compare its performance with both the I+ECO system and the standard I-controller. The simulation findings demonstrate that implementing the I+ECO and the proposed I+ECO+V2G strategies results in enhanced system stability and decreased LF fluctuations compared to the conventional I-control approach. Furthermore, while comparing the I+ECO control technique to the suggested control strategy I+ECO+V2G, it was seen that the latter reaches steady state values more quickly. The results validate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed controller in mitigating the impacts of load disturbances, uncertainties, and nonlinearities within the system. These simulations were performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK. To validate the outcomes of the simulation results, an experimental setup consisting of a real-time dSPACE DS1103 connected to another PC via QUARC pid_e data acquisition card was used. The experimental findings have substantiated the accuracy of the simulation findings about the superiority of the I+ECO+V2G methodology compared to both the I+ECO and I-control methodologies concerning system performance and LF control.