Removal of single and dual ring thiophene’s from dodecane using cavitation based processes

Ultrason Sonochem. 2022 Aug 29;89:106148. doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2022.106148. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Utilising cavitation for enhancing oxidative desulphurization has been investigated for nearly-two decades with recent investigations shifting focus from low-capacity acoustic cavitation (AC) to scalable hydrodynamic cavitation (HC). This work focuses on developing a viable means for removing thiophene’s from fuels. In the first phase of this work, use of vortex based HC devices for removal of single and dual ring thiophenes from dodecane was investigated. HC was shown to be able to remove single ring thiophene from dodecane without using any external catalyst or additives. However, in absence of catalyst or additives, it was not possible to remove dual ring thiophenes such as dibenzothiophene using HC. Therefore, in the second phase of this work, various strategies based on use of catalyst or additives to augment cavitation based process were investigated. AC based experiments were opted for shortlisting suitable catalysts and additives for intensifying cavitation based processes. The influence of using oxidant (H2O2) and carboxylic acid catalysts on efficacy of removal of dual ring thiophenes is presented. Several conditions were tested, and the optimal volumetric ratios of 0.95 v/v % H2O2 and 6.25 v/v % HCOOH was identified and utilised throughout the remainder of the study. Regeneration of extractant which accumulates oxidised sulphur species from dodecane was also investigated using AC. The additives and process conditions reported in this work are useful for enhancing desulphurization performance.

PMID:36063788 | DOI:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2022.106148

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