Sci Rep. 2022 Jul 28;12(1):12972. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-17305-w.
In this investigation, Kaolin (K) impregnated aminated chitosan (AM-CTS) composite beads were fabricated with multi-features including low-cost, high performance, renewable and ease of separation for adsorption of anionic Congo red (CR) dye. Characterization tools such as FTIR, XRD, SEM, TGA, BET, XPS and Zeta potential were thoroughly employed to confirm the successful formulation process. The results revealed that K@ AM-CTS composite beads displayed higher specific surface area (128.52 m2/g), while the thermal stability was prominently improved compared to pure AM-CTS. In addition, the adsorption equilibrium of CR dye was accomplished rapidly and closely gotten within 45 min. The removal efficiency was significantly enriched and reached 90.7% with increasing kaolin content up to 0.75%, compared to 20.3 and 58% for pristine kaolin and AM-CTS, respectively. Moreover, the adsorption process obeyed the pseudo-first order kinetic model, while data were agreed with the Freundlich isotherm model with a maximum adsorption capacity reached 104 mg/g at pH 6. Furthermore, D-R isotherm model demonstrated the physical adsorption process of CR dye, which includes the electrostatic interactions, ion exchange and H-bonding. Thermodynamics evidenced the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption process. Interestingly, the developed K@AM-CTS composites beads showed better reusability for eight consecutive cycles, suggesting their feasible applicability for adsorptive removal anionic dyes from polluted aquatic bodies.