Plants (Basel). 2023 Jan 8;12(2):299. doi: 10.3390/plants12020299.
In the present work Origanum dictamnus L. was studied as a suitable in vitro adventitious root culture system for the production of important bioactive molecules, such as rosmarinic acid (RA). Callus culture was initiated from leaf, petiole and root explants on solid MS medium supplemented with either 5 μM NAA + 5 μM kinetin (ODK3) or 5 μM NAA + 0.5 μM kinetin (ODK4). New roots formed from leaf, petiole and root calluses were aseptically transferred into Erlenmeyer flasks containing 100 mL liquid medium and shaken at 120 rpm in the dark. The liquid medium used was the MS supplemented either with 35 μM IBA + 2.5 μM kinetin (ODY1) or 5 μM NAA + 0.5 μM kinetin (ODY2). Biomass production parameters, RA content (%) and yield index (YI) were recorded for each treatment explant type, medium composition and incubation period. Results showed, in every case, the production of RA in vitro. Between the two liquid media (ODY1, ODY2) and the different culture periods, the ODY1 medium and the longest 200-day-culture period were more effective for RA and biomass production, regardless of the initial explant type used. The combination of ODK4-ODY1 resulted in higher RA (5.1% and 4.7%), fresh biomass production (19.0 g and 11.6 g), mean YI (93.7 mg and 51.4 mg) and YI per explant (3.75 mg and 2.06 mg) for roots derived from leaf calluses and root calluses, respectively. However, the solid ODK3 (200 days)-liquid ODY1 (40 days) transition treatment was more beneficial for roots derived from petiole calluses leading to an 18.8-fold increase in fresh biomass growth rate. RA accumulation and YIs were also significantly influenced by explant type, with the highest value produced from root petiole calluses (6.6% RA dry weight, 115.3 mg mean YI and 4.61 mg YI per explant) after 240 days.