Theranostics. 2023 Jan 31;13(3):1091-1108. doi: 10.7150/thno.78872. eCollection 2023.
There has been a long-standing interest in point-of-care (POC) diagnostics as a tool to improve patient care because it can provide rapid, actionable results near the patient. Some of the successful examples of POC testing include lateral flow assays, urine dipsticks, and glucometers. Unfortunately, POC analysis is somewhat limited by the ability to manufacture simple devices to selectively measure disease specific biomarkers and the need for invasive biological sampling. Next generation POCs are being developed that make use of microfluidic devices to detect biomarkers in biological fluids in a non-invasive manner, addressing the above-mentioned limitations. Microfluidic devices are desirable because they can provide the ability to perform additional sample processing steps not available in existing commercial diagnostics. As a result, they can provide more sensitive and selective analysis. While most POC methods make use of blood or urine as a sample matrix, there has been a growing push to use saliva as a diagnostic medium. Saliva represents an ideal non-invasive biofluid for detecting biomarkers because it is readily available in large quantities and analyte levels reflect those in blood. However, using saliva in microfluidic devices for POC diagnostics is a relatively new and an emerging field. The overarching aim of this review is to provide an update on recent literature focused on the use of saliva as a biological sample matrix in microfluidic devices. We will first cover the characteristics of saliva as a sample medium and then review microfluidic devices that are developed for the analysis of salivary biomarkers.
PMID:36793864 | PMC:PMC9925318 | DOI:10.7150/thno.78872