Cyborg Bionic Syst. 2021 Oct 19;2021:9807520. doi: 10.34133/2021/9807520. eCollection 2021.
DNA nanotechnology takes DNA molecule out of its biological context to build nanostructures that have entered the realm of robots and thus added a dimension to cyborg and bionic systems. Spurred by spring-like properties of DNA molecule, the assembled nanorobots can be tuned to enable restricted, mechanical motion by deliberate design. DNA nanorobots can be programmed with a combination of several unique features, such as tissue penetration, site-targeting, stimuli responsiveness, and cargo-loading, which makes them ideal candidates as biomedical robots for precision medicine. Even though DNA nanorobots are capable of detecting target molecule and determining cell fate via a variety of DNA-based interactions both in vitro and in vivo, major obstacles remain on the path to real-world applications of DNA nanorobots. Control over nanorobot’s stability, cargo loading and release, analyte binding, and dynamic switching both independently and simultaneously represents the most eminent challenge that biomedical DNA nanorobots currently face. Meanwhile, scaling up DNA nanorobots with low-cost under CMC and GMP standards represents other pertinent challenges regarding the clinical translation. Nevertheless, DNA nanorobots will undoubtedly be a powerful toolbox to improve human health once those remained challenges are addressed by using a scalable and cost-efficient method.