Smart Graphene-Based Electrochemical Nanobiosensor for Clinical Diagnosis: Review

Sensors (Basel). 2023 Feb 16;23(4):2240. doi: 10.3390/s23042240.


The technological improvement in the field of physics, chemistry, electronics, nanotechnology, biology, and molecular biology has contributed to the development of various electrochemical biosensors with a broad range of applications in healthcare settings, food control and monitoring, and environmental monitoring. In the past, conventional biosensors that have employed bioreceptors, such as enzymes, antibodies, Nucleic Acid (NA), etc., and used different transduction methods such as optical, thermal, electrochemical, electrical and magnetic detection, have been developed. Yet, with all the progresses made so far, these biosensors are clouded with many challenges, such as interference with undesirable compound, low sensitivity, specificity, selectivity, and longer processing time. In order to address these challenges, there is high need for developing novel, fast, highly sensitive biosensors with high accuracy and specificity. Scientists explore these gaps by incorporating nanoparticles (NPs) and nanocomposites (NCs) to enhance the desired properties. Graphene nanostructures have emerged as one of the ideal materials for biosensing technology due to their excellent dispersity, ease of functionalization, physiochemical properties, optical properties, good electrical conductivity, etc. The Integration of the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) in the development of biosensors has the potential to improve diagnosis and treatment of diseases through early diagnosis and on time monitoring. The outcome of this comprehensive review will be useful to understand the significant role of graphene-based electrochemical biosensor integrated with Artificial Intelligence AI and IoMT for clinical diagnostics. The review is further extended to cover open research issues and future aspects of biosensing technology for diagnosis and management of clinical diseases and performance evaluation based on Linear Range (LR) and Limit of Detection (LOD) within the ranges of Micromolar µM (10-6), Nanomolar nM (10-9), Picomolar pM (10-12), femtomolar fM (10-15), and attomolar aM (10-18).

PMID:36850837 | PMC:PMC9964617 | DOI:10.3390/s23042240


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