Smartphone-Based Platforms for Clinical Detections in Lung-Cancer-Related Exhaled Breath Biomarkers: A Review

Biosensors (Basel). 2022 Apr 8;12(4):223. doi: 10.3390/bios12040223.

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer has been studied for decades because of its high morbidity and high mortality. Traditional methods involving bronchoscopy and needle biopsy are invasive and expensive, which makes patients suffer more risks and costs. Various noninvasive lung cancer markers, such as medical imaging indices, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and exhaled breath condensates (EBCs), have been discovered for application in screening, diagnosis, and prognosis. However, the detection of markers still relies on bulky and professional instruments, which are limited to training personnel or laboratories. This seriously hinders population screening for early diagnosis of lung cancer. Advanced smartphones integrated with powerful applications can provide easy operation and real-time monitoring for healthcare, which demonstrates tremendous application scenarios in the biomedical analysis region from medical institutions or laboratories to personalized medicine. In this review, we propose an overview of lung-cancer-related noninvasive markers from exhaled breath, focusing on the novel development of smartphone-based platforms for the detection of these biomarkers. Lastly, we discuss the current limitations and potential solutions.

PMID:35448283 | DOI:10.3390/bios12040223

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