Nano Converg. 2022 Aug 5;9(1):36. doi: 10.1186/s40580-022-00327-5.
Photosynthesis is the most important biological process on Earth that converts solar energy to chemical energy (biomass) using sunlight as the sole energy source. The yield of photosynthesis is highly sensitive to the intensity and spectral components of light received by the photosynthetic organisms. Therefore, photon engineering has the potential to increase photosynthesis. Spectral conversion materials have been proposed for solar spectral management and widely investigated for photosynthesis by modifying the quality of light reaching the organisms since the 1990s. Such spectral conversion materials manage the photon spectrum of light by a photoconversion process, and a primary challenge faced by these materials is increasing their efficiencies. This review focuses on emerging spectral conversion materials for augmenting the photosynthesis of plants and microalgae, with a special emphasis on their fundamental design and potential applications in both greenhouse settings and microalgae cultivation systems. Finally, a discussion about the future perspectives in this field is made to overcome the remaining challenges.