Pesticides have been used in agricultural activity for decades because they represent the first defense against pathogens, harmful insects, and parasitic weeds. Conventional pesticides are commonly employed at high dosages to prevent their loss and degradation, guaranteeing effectiveness; however, this results in a large waste of resources and significant environmental pollution. In this regard, the search for biocompatible, biodegradable, and responsive materials has received greater attention in the last years to achieve the obtention of an efficient and green pesticide formulation. Nanotechnology is a useful tool to design and develop “nanopesticides” that limit pest degradation and ensure a controlled release using a lower concentration than the conventional methods. Besides different types of nanoparticles, polymeric nanocarriers represent the most promising group of nanomaterials to improve the agrochemicals’ sustainability due to polymers’ intrinsic properties. Polymeric nanoparticles are biocompatible, biodegradable, and suitable for chemical surface modification, making them attractive for pesticide delivery. This review summarizes the current use of synthetic and natural polymer-based nanopesticides, discussing their characteristics and their most common design shapes. Furthermore, we approached the instability phenomena in polymer-based nanopesticides and strategies to avoid it. Finally, we discussed the environmental risks and future challenges of polymeric nanopesticides to present a comprehensive analysis of this type of nanosystem.