Strategies of pretreatment of feedstocks for optimized bioethanol production: distinct and integrated approaches

Biotechnol Biofuels Bioprod. 2023 Mar 13;16(1):44. doi: 10.1186/s13068-023-02295-2.


Bioethanol is recognized as a valuable substitute for renewable energy sources to meet the fuel and energy demand of the nation, considered an environmentally friendly resource obtained from agricultural residues such as sugarcane bagasse, rice straw, husk, wheat straw and corn stover. The energy demand is sustained using lignocellulosic biomass to produce bioethanol. Lignocellulosic biomass (LCBs) is the point of attention in replacing the dependence on fossil fuels. The recalcitrant structure of the lignocellulosic biomass is disrupted using effective pretreatment techniques that separate complex interlinked structures among cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Pretreatment of biomass involves various physical, chemical, biological, and physiochemical protocols which are of importance, dependent upon their individual or combined dissolution effect. Physical pretreatment involves a reduction in the size of the biomass using mechanical, extrusion, irradiation, and sonification methods while chemical pretreatment involves the breaking of various bonds present in the LCB structure. This can be obtained by using an acidic, alkaline, ionic liquid, and organosolvent methods. Biological pretreatment is considered an environment-friendly and safe process involving various bacterial and fungal microorganisms. Distinct pretreatment methods, when combined and utilized in synchronization lead to more effective disruption of LCB, making biomass more accessible for further processing. These could be utilized in terms of their effectiveness for a particular type of cellulosic fiber and are namely steam explosion, liquid hot water, ammonia fibre explosion, CO2 explosion, and wet air oxidation methods. The present review encircles various distinct and integrated pretreatment processes developed till now and their advancement according to the current trend and future aspects to make lignocellulosic biomass available for further hydrolysis and fermentation.

PMID:36915167 | PMC:PMC10012730 | DOI:10.1186/s13068-023-02295-2


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