Heliyon. 2023 Feb 17:e13797. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e13797. Online ahead of print.
The majority of research to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection exploits the adaptive immune system, but innate immunity, the first line of defense against pathogenic microbes, is equally important in understanding and controlling infectious diseases. Various cellular mechanisms provide physiochemical barriers to microbe infection in mucosal membranes and epithelia, with extracellular polysaccharides, particularly sulfated polysaccharides, being among the most widespread and potent extracellular and secreted molecules blocking and deactivating bacteria, fungi, and viruses. New research reveals that a range of polysaccharides effectively inhibits COV-2 infection of mammalian cells in culture. This review provides an overview of sulfated polysaccharides nomenclature, its significance as immunomodulators, antioxidants, antitumors, anticoagulants, antibacterial, and as potent antivirals. It summarizes current research on various interactions of sulfated polysaccharide with a range of viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and their application for potential treatments for COVID-19. These molecules interact with biochemical signaling in immune cell responses, by actions in oxidative reactions, cytokine signaling, receptor binding, and through antiviral and antibacterial toxicity. These properties provide the potential for the development of novel therapeutic treatments for SARS-CoV-2 and other infectious diseases from modified polysaccharides.
PMID:36811015 | PMC:PMC9936785 | DOI:10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e13797