Surface engineered mesoporous silica carriers for the controlled delivery of anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil: Computational approach for the drug-carrier interactions using density functional theory

Front Pharmacol. 2023 Apr 13;14:1146562. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2023.1146562. eCollection 2023.


Introduction: Drug delivery systems are the topmost priority to increase drug safety and efficacy. In this study, hybrid porous silicates SBA-15 and its derivatives SBA@N and SBA@3N were synthesized and loaded with an anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil. The drug release was studied in a simulated physiological environment. Method: These materials were characterized for their textural and physio-chemical properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAX), and nitrogen adsorption/desorption techniques. The surface electrostatics of the materials was measured by zeta potential. Results: The drug loading efficiency of the prepared hybrid materials was about 10%. In vitro drug release profiles were obtained in simulated fluids. Slow drug release kinetics was observed for SBA@3N, which released 7.5% of the entrapped drug in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF, pH 7.2) and 33% in simulated body fluid (SBF, pH 7.2) for 72 h. The material SBA@N presented an initial burst release of 13% in simulated intestinal fluid and 32.6% in simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.2), while about 70% of the drug was released within the next 72 h. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have also supported the slow drug release from the SBA@3N material. The release mechanism of the drug from the prepared carriers was studied by first-order, second-order, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Hixson-Crowell, and Higuchi kinetic models. The drug release from these carriers follows Fickian diffusion and zero-order kinetics in SGF and SBF, whereas first-order, non-Fickian diffusion, and case-II transport were observed in SIF. Discussion: Based on these findings, the proposed synthesized hybrid materials may be suggested as a potential drug delivery system for anti-cancer drugs such as 5-fluorouracil.

PMID:37124235 | PMC:PMC10133552 | DOI:10.3389/fphar.2023.1146562


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