Biomass Convers Biorefin. 2022 Oct 27:1-17. doi: 10.1007/s13399-022-03445-6. Online ahead of print.
Mosquito control is becoming more difficult as a result of the rise in resistance to toxic chemical insecticides. The insecticides of bio-fabrication sources may serve as a convenient alternative to environmentally acceptable methods in the future. The larvicidal and pupicidal activities of bio-fabricated zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on the different instar larvae and pupae of Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Malaria vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (lymphatic filariasis) were investigated in this study. The results recorded from XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDX, and TEM analyses confirmed the bio-fabrication of ZnO NPs. Such nanoparticles were nearly spherical and agglomerated with a size of 34.21 nm. GC-MS analysis of methanol extract revealed the compound, stigmasterol (C29H48O) as major one. Mosquito larvae and pupae of targeted mosquito were tested against varied concentrations of the bio-fabricated ZnO NPs and methanol extract of Vitex negundo for 24 h. The maximum activity was recorded from ZnO NPs against the larvae and pupae of A. subpictus LC50 which were 1.70 (I), 1.66 (II), 1.93 (III), 2.48 (IV), and 3.63 mg/L (pupa) and C. quinquefasciatus LC50 were 1.95 (I), 2.63 (II), 2.90 (III), 4.32 (IV), and 4.61 mg/L (pupa) respectively. ZnO NPs exhibited strong DPPH radical and FRAP scavengers compared to the aqueous extract of V. negundo. Also, V. negundo leaf methanol extract (VNLME) and ZnO NPs were evaluated for their cytotoxicity on HeLa cells, which exhibited the IC50 values of 72.35 and 43.70μg/mL, respectively. The methylene blue (MB) dye, which is harmful to both aquatic and terrestrial life, was degraded using the biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles. At 664 nm, 81.2% of the MB dye had degraded after 120 min of exposure to sunlight. Overall, our results revealed that ZnO NPs are the perfect biological agent and economical for the control of malaria, filariasis vectors, antioxidant, HeLa cells, and MB blue dye degradation under sunlight irradiation.