Sustainable economic activities, climate change, and carbon risk: an international evidence

Environ Dev Sustain. 2021 Sep 27:1-23. doi: 10.1007/s10668-021-01842-x. Online ahead of print.


The employment of renewable resources and their association with the real economy’s growth in mitigating the problem of carbon emission risk has been debated in the literature in a specific group of countries and regions. However, their relations and effects for a better sustainable energy transmission would need further research works in an international context. Motivated by that reason, this study contributes to the ongoing literature by revisiting the effects of renewable energy consumption, electricity output, and economic activities on carbon risk using a global sample of 219 countries over the period of 1990-2020. Using GMM estimation, simultaneous quantile, and panel quantile estimations; the study finds supportive findings showing that the higher the countries with renewable energy consumption and electricity output the better the capacity those countries can mitigate the environmental degradation by reducing the amount of total carbon emission over time. However, those relations are changed when using system GMM approaches, implying the role of FDI inflows and the difference in income groups in the selected sample countries. This can be intuitively explained that emerging countries might give more priority to the economic growth receiving FDI inflows from more advanced economies and balancing the trade-off between economic growth and environmental protection, while the developed economies with their advantages in green technologies and financial flexibility might have higher advantages in acquiring a sustainable transition and maintaining the real economy’s growth without significant trade-off concerns. Finally, the study provides important policy implications and avenues for further research.

PMID:34602852 | PMC:PMC8475409 | DOI:10.1007/s10668-021-01842-x


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