Synergistic effect of sonication on photocatalytic oxidation of pharmaceutical drug carbamazepine

Ultrason Sonochem. 2021 Sep 6;78:105749. doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2021.105749. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Photocatalytic, sono-photocatalytic oxidation of pharmaceutical drug of carbamazepine was successfully carried out using Ag/AgCl supported BiVO4 catalyst. For this purpose, firstly, photocatalytic oxidation was optimized by central composite design methodology and then synergistic effect of sonication was investigated. Low frequency (20 kHz) probe type and high frequency (850 kHz) plate type sonication at pulse and continuous mode were studied to degrade the carbamazepine (CBZ) containing wastewater. Pulse duties of 1:5 and 5:1 (on : off) were tested using the high frequency sonication system in the sono-photocatalytic oxidation of CBZ. The effects of frequency, power density measured from calorimetry by changing amplitudes were discussed in the sono-photocatalytic oxidation of CBZ. Complete carbamazepine removal was achieved at the optimum conditions of 5 ppm CBZ initial concentration with 1.5 g/L of catalysts loading and at an alkaline pH of 10 at the end of 4 h of photocatalytic reaction under visible LED light irradiation. Both low frequency and high frequency sonication systems caused an increase in photocatalytic efficiency in a shorter treatment time of 60 min. CBZ removal increased from 44% to 65.42% in low frequency sonication of 20 kHz at the amplitude of 20% (0.15 W/mL power density). In the case of high frequency ultrasonic system (850 kHz), CBZ removal increased significantly from 44% to 89.5 % at 75% amplitude (0.12 W/mL power density) within 60 min of reaction. Continuous mode sonication was observed to be more effective than that of pulse mode sonication not only for degradation efficiency and also for electrical energy consumption needed to degrade CBZ. Sono-catalytic oxidation was also conducted with simulated wastewater that contains SO42-, CO32-, NO3-, Cl- anions and natural organic component of fulvic acid. The CBZ degradation was inhibited slightly in the presence of NO3- and Cl-, and fulvic acid, however, the existence of SO42- and CO32- increased the degradation degree of CBZ. Toxicity tests were performed to determine the toxicity of untreated CBZ, and treated CBZ by photocatalytic, and sono-photocatalytic oxidations.

PMID:34520962 | DOI:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2021.105749

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