Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2022 Sep 9;2022:8006642. doi: 10.1155/2022/8006642. eCollection 2022.
Atherosclerosis is the key pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases; oxidative stress, which is induced by the generated excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), has been a crucial mechanism underlying this pathology. Nanoparticles (NPs) represent a novel strategy for the development of potential therapies against atherosclerosis, and multifunctional NPs possessing antioxidative capacities hold promise for amelioration of vascular injury caused by ROS and for evading off-target effects; materials that are currently used for NP synthesis often serve as vehicles that do not possess intrinsic biological activities; however, they may affect the surrounding healthy environment due to decomposition of products. Herein, we used nontoxic fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide derived from a marine organism, to develop chitosan-fucoidan nanoparticles (CFNs). Then, by binding to P-selectin, an inflammatory adhesion exhibited molecule expression on the endothelial cells and activated platelets, blocking leukocyte recruitment and rolling on platelets and endothelium. CFNs exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Nevertheless, by now, the application of CFNs for the target delivery regarding therapeutics specific to atherosclerotic plaques is not well investigated. The produced CFNs were physicochemically characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), together with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Evaluations of the in vitro antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory activities exhibited by CFNs were based on the measurement of their ROS scavenging abilities and investigating inflammatory mediator levels. The in vivo pharmacokinetics and binding efficiency of the CFNs to atherosclerotic plaques were also evaluated. The therapeutic effects indicated that CFNs effectively suppressed local oxidative stress and inflammation by targeting P-selectin in atheromatous plaques and thereby preventing the progression of atherosclerosis.