Infect Drug Resist. 2023 Aug 14;16:5295-5308. doi: 10.2147/IDR.S407891. eCollection 2023.
INTRODUCTION: Global public health concerns include the emergence and spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase Escherichia coli (ESBL-E. coli). These pathogens cause infections that are difficult to treat, which can have fatal outcomes and require lengthy hospital stays. As a result, we created butyl 2-bromoisonicotinate and tested its antibacterial effectiveness against the ESBL-E. coli ST 405 and MRSA pathogens. Natural product discovery is complemented by synthetic compound synthesis because of the latter’s potential for superior characteristics, target specificity, scalability, intellectual advantages, and chemical diversity. Because of this, the potential for discovering new medicinal compounds is increased, and the constraints placed on natural sources are overcome. Natural items are tough to obtain since they are hard to isolate and synthesize. Therefore, modern science is actively searching for small molecules as therapeutic agents by applying sustainable techniques that can be commercialized.
METHODS: Two patients’ blood samples were taken, and the BACTEC/Alert system was used to process them. On blood and MacConkey agar, the positive samples were subcultured and incubated aerobically at 37 °C. Using the VITEK 2 compact system, the isolates were subjected to isolate identification and MIC. MLST of the ESBL-E. coli was performed by PCR. Additionally, Fischer esterification was used to create butyl 2-bromoisonicotinate in excellent yields. A commercially available palladium catalyst was then used to arylate the compound, resulting in medium to good yields of arylated butyl 2-bromoisonicotinates. Using the agar well diffusion assay and the micro-broth dilution method, we assessed the in-vitro activities of the synthesized molecules (3, 5a-h) against clinically isolated ESBL-E. coli ST405, and MRSA. A molecular operating environment was used to carry out in silico validation of the synthesized compounds’ binding to the active site and to evaluate the stability of their molecular interactions with the target E. coli 2Y2T protein.
RESULTS: MRSA and ESBL-producing E. coli were identified as the two clinical isolates. While MRSA was also resistant to beta-lactam drugs and least resistant to vancomycin, ESBL-producing E. coli belonged to ST405 and was resistant to cephalosporins and sensitive to carbapenems. Good yields of the desired compounds were produced by our effective and economical synthesis. By using a micro-broth dilution assay, the Molecules (3, 5a, and 5d) were most effective against both resistant strains. The Molecules (3, 5a, 5b, and 5d) also displayed good binding energies.
CONCLUSION: The butyl 2-bromoisonicotinate displayed antibacterial efficacy against ESBL-producing E. coli ST405 and MRSA strains. After the in-vivo trial, this substance might offer an alternative therapeutic option.