Coord Chem Rev. 2022 Dec 1;472:214770. doi: 10.1016/j.ccr.2022.214770. Epub 2022 Aug 23.
Engineered nanostructures are materials with promising properties, enabled by precise design and fabrication, as well as size-dependent effects. Biomedical applications of nanomaterials in disease-specific prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and recovery monitoring require precise, specific, and sophisticated approaches to yield effective and long-lasting favorable outcomes for patients. In this regard, carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been indentified due to their interesting properties, such as good mechanical strength, high electrical conductivity, and desirable morphological features. Broadly speaking, CNFs can be categorized as vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNFs) and carbonized CNFs (e.g., electrospun CNFs), which have distinct microstructure, morphologies, and physicochemical properties. In addition to their physicochemical properties, VGCNFs and electrospun CNFs have distinct performances in biomedicine and have their own pros and cons. Indeed, several review papers in the literature have summarized and discussed the different types of CNFs and their performances in the industrial, energy, and composites areas. Crucially however, there is room for a comprehensive review paper dealing with CNFs from a biomedical point of view. The present work therefore, explored various types of CNFs, their fabrication and surface modification methods, and their applications in the different branches of biomedical engineering.