J Family Med Prim Care. 2022 Jun;11(6):2499-2502. doi: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_883_21. Epub 2022 Jun 30.
BACKGROUND: Though, smoking is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease worldwide, the household air pollution due to use of solid biomass fuel is considered as a major risk factor for the development of obstructive lung disease. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of solid biomass fuel exposure on lung functions in non-smoking female population.
METHODS: A hospital based, descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among 140 non-smoking female patients aged 40 or more and who had been exposed to solid biomass fuel. These patients underwent spirometry to assess their lung function and were classified as obstructive, restrictive or mixed. Modified medical research council (mMRC) dyspnoea scale for symptom assessment, 6-minute walk test (6 MWT) to determine the exercise capacity and Cumulative exposure index to assess the duration of exposure were also done.
RESULTS: All 140 (100%) patients having abnormal lung function, 4 (2.86%) had restrictive pattern, 5 (3.57%) had mixed pattern and 131 (93.57%) had obstructive pattern. Of 131 patients having obstructive pattern, 11 had mild obstruction, 49 had moderate obstruction, 39 had severe obstruction and 32 had very severe obstruction. Most commonly used biomass fuel was wood (43.57%). All the patients had shortness of breath, whereas cough was present in only 35.71% cases. 77 (55%) patients presented with a dyspnoea of mMRC grade 3 and above.
CONCLUSION: Cumulative exposure index for solid biomass fuel is directly proportional to the severity of lung impairment as well as the symptom severity.