Stem Cell Res Ther. 2022 Nov 4;13(1):511. doi: 10.1186/s13287-022-03199-y.
Bone injury plagues millions of patients worldwide every year, and it demands a heavy portion of expense from the public medical insurance system. At present, orthopedists think that autologous bone transplantation is the gold standard for treating large-scale bone defects. However, this method has significant limitations, which means that parts of patients cannot obtain a satisfactory prognosis. Therefore, a basic study on new therapeutic methods is urgently needed. The in-depth research on crosstalk between macrophages (Mϕs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) suggests that there is a close relationship between inflammation and regeneration. The in-depth understanding of the crosstalk between Mϕs and BMSCs is helpful to amplify the efficacy of stem cell-based treatment for bone injury. Only in the suitable inflammatory microenvironment can the damaged tissues containing stem cells obtain satisfactory healing outcomes. The excessive tissue inflammation and lack of stem cells make the transplantation of biomaterials necessary. We can expect that the crosstalk between Mϕs and BMSCs and biomaterials will become the mainstream to explore new methods for bone injury in the future. This review mainly summarizes the research on the crosstalk between Mϕs and BMSCs and also briefly describes the effects of biomaterials and aging on cell transplantation therapy.