Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Oct 21;23(20):12670. doi: 10.3390/ijms232012670.
There is still an urgent need for more efficient biological scaffolds to promote the healing of bone defects. Vessels can accelerate bone growth and regeneration by transporting nutrients, which is an excellent method to jointly increase osteogenesis and angiogenesis in bone regeneration. Therefore, we aimed to prepare a composite scaffold that could promote osteogenesis with angiogenesis to enhance bone defect repair. Here, we report that scaffolds were prepared by coaxial electrospinning with mesoporous bioactive glass modified with amino (MBG-NH2) adsorbing insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) as the core and silk fibroin (SF) adsorbing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as the shell. These scaffolds were named MBG-NH2/IGF@SF/VEGF and might be used as repair materials to promote bone defect repair. Interestingly, we found that the MBG-NH2/IGF@SF/VEGF scaffolds had nano-scale morphology and high porosity, as well as enough mechanical strength to support the tissue. Moreover, MBG-NH2 could sustain the release of IGF-1 to achieve long-term repair. Additionally, the MBG-NH2/IGF@SF/VEGF scaffolds could significantly promote the mRNA expression levels of osteogenic marker genes and the protein expression levels of Bmp2 and Runx2 in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Meanwhile, the MBG-NH2/IGF@SF/VEGF scaffolds promoted osteogenesis by simulating Runx2 transcription activity through the phosphorylated Erk1/2-activated pathway. Intriguingly, the MBG-NH2/IGF@SF/VEGF scaffolds could also significantly promote the mRNA expression level of angiogenesis marker genes and the protein expression level of CD31. Furthermore, RNA sequencing verified that the MBG-NH2/IGF@SF/VEGF scaffolds had excellent performance in promoting bone defect repair and angiogenesis. Consistent with these observations, we found that the MBG-NH2/IGF@SF/VEGF scaffolds demonstrated a good repair effect on a critical skull defect in mice in vivo, which not only promoted the formation of blood vessels in the haversian canal but also accelerated the bone repair process. We concluded that these MBG-NH2/IGF@SF/VEGF scaffolds could promote bone defect repair under accelerating angiogenesis. Our finding provides a new potential biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.