The effect of cold acclimation, deacclimation and reacclimation on metabolite profiles and freezing tolerance in winter wheat

Front Plant Sci. 2022 Aug 15;13:959118. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2022.959118. eCollection 2022.


Global climate change will cause longer and warmer autumns, thus negatively affecting the quality of cold acclimation (CA) and reducing the freezing tolerance (FT) of winter wheat. Insufficient FT and fluctuating temperatures during winter can accelerate the deacclimation (DEA) process, whereas reacclimation (REA) is possible only while the vernalization requirement is unfulfilled. Six winter wheat genotypes with different winter hardiness profiles were used to evaluate the impact of constant low-temperature (2°C) and prolonged higher low-temperature (28 days at 10°C followed by 2°C until day 49) on shoot biomass and metabolite accumulation patterns in leaf and crown tissues throughout 49 days of CA, 7 days of DEA, and 14 days of REA. The FT of winter wheat was determined as LT30 values by conducting freezing tests after CA, DEA, and REA. Shoot biomass accumulation, projected as the green leaf area (GLA), was investigated by non-destructive RGB imaging-based phenotyping. Dynamics of carbohydrates, hexose phosphates, organic acids, proteins, and amino acids were assessed in leaf and crown tissues. Results revealed that exposure to higher low-temperature induced higher accumulation of shoot biomass and had a negative impact on FT of winter wheat. Prolonged higher low-temperature negatively affected the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates, protein content and amino acids, and had a positive effect on starch accumulation in leaf and crown tissues after CA, in comparison with the constant low-temperature treatment. DEA resulted in significantly reduced FT. Lower concentrations of glucose-6-phosphate, sucrose and proline, as well as higher concentrations of starch in leaves and crowns were found after DEA. The majority of the genotypes regained FT after REA; higher concentrations of glucose and malate in leaves, and sucrose in crown tissue were observed, whereas starch accumulation was decreased in both tissues. Negative correlations were determined between FT and starch concentration in leaves and crowns, while proline and proteins, accumulated in crowns, showed positive correlations with FT. This study broadens the knowledge regarding the effect of different low-temperature regimes on the dynamics of metabolite accumulation in winter wheat throughout CA, DEA, and REA, and its relationship to biomass accumulation and FT.

PMID:36046584 | PMC:PMC9421140 | DOI:10.3389/fpls.2022.959118


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