The effect of reducing per capita water and energy uses on renewable water resources in the water, food and energy nexus

Sci Rep. 2022 May 9;12(1):7582. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-11595-w.

ABSTRACT

This study assesses the feedbacks between water, food, and energy nexus at the national level with a dynamic-system model, taking into account the qualitative and quantitative environmental water needs. Surface and groundwater resources are considered jointly in the water resources subsystem of this dynamic system. The developed model considers the effects of reducing the per capita use water and energy on its system’s components. Results indicate that due to feedbacks the changes in per capita uses of water and energy have indirect and direct effects. About 40% of the total water savings achieved by the per capita change policy was related to energy savings, in other words, it is an indirect saving. Implementation of per capita use reductions compensates for 9% of the decline of Iran’s groundwater reservoirs (non-renewable resources in the short term) that occur during the five-year study period. The Manageable and Exploitable Renewable Water Stress Index (MRWI) corresponding to water and energy savings equals 214.5%, which is better than its value under the current situation (which is equal to 235.1%).

PMID:35534602 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-022-11595-w

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