The link between indoor air pollution from cooking fuels and anemia status among non-pregnant women of reproductive age in Ethiopia

SAGE Open Med. 2022 Jul 4;10:20503121221107466. doi: 10.1177/20503121221107466. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The effect of indoor air pollution from different fuel types on the anemia status among non-pregnant women is rarely studied. This study aimed to assess the link between indoor air pollution from different fuel types and anemia among non-pregnant women of reproductive ages in Ethiopia.

METHOD: The secondary data from the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data have been employed for this study. The anemia status of women in reproductive age was the outcome variable with multiple outcomes as (moderate to severe, mild, and no anemia) and households using biomass fuel and clean fuel were selected for this study. Multinomial logistic regression was employed to estimate the association of biomass fuel use with the anemia status controlling for the predictor variables. Relative risk ratio was calculated at 95% confidence interval. An independent-sample t-test was used to assess the mean difference in blood hemoglobin level (g/dL) between the two fuel users. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant.

RESULT: From the total of 10,961 participants included in this study, the proportion of anemia in women of non-reproductive age was 41.8% and 19.4% among biomass fuel and clean fuel users, respectively, with a mean blood hemoglobin level of 12.71 (±1.81) g/dL. In the final model, women using biomass fuel for cooking were 47% more likely to have mild anemia than households who use cleaner fuels, whereas the association was insignificant for moderate to severe anemia. Biomass fuel users were also found to have 5.8 g/dL lower blood hemoglobin level than the clean fuel user (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: The use of biomass fuel was associated with reduced blood hemoglobin levels and significantly associated with mild anemia levels in women of reproductive age in Ethiopia. National efforts should be in place to reduce indoor air pollution from biomass fuels.

PMID:35814308 | PMC:PMC9260590 | DOI:10.1177/20503121221107466

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