The role of dendritic cells in the immunomodulation to implanted biomaterials

Int J Oral Sci. 2022 Nov 4;14(1):52. doi: 10.1038/s41368-022-00203-2.

ABSTRACT

Considering the substantial role played by dendritic cells (DCs) in the immune system to bridge innate and adaptive immunity, studies on DC-mediated immunity toward biomaterials principally center on their adjuvant effects in facilitating the adaptive immunity of codelivered antigens. However, the effect of the intrinsic properties of biomaterials on dendritic cells has not been clarified. Recently, researchers have begun to investigate and found that biomaterials that are nonadjuvant could also regulate the immune function of DCs and thus affect subsequent tissue regeneration. In the case of proteins adsorbed onto biomaterial surfaces, their intrinsic properties can direct their orientation and conformation, forming “biomaterial-associated molecular patterns (BAMPs)”. Thus, in this review, we focused on the intrinsic physiochemical properties of biomaterials in the absence of antigens that affect DC immune function and summarized the underlying signaling pathways. Moreover, we preliminarily clarified the specific composition of BAMPs and the interplay between some key molecules and DCs, such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). This review provides a new direction for future biomaterial design, through which modulation of host immune responses is applicable to tissue engineering and immunotherapy.

PMID:36333287 | PMC:PMC9636170 | DOI:10.1038/s41368-022-00203-2

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