Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2022 Jul;26(14):5255-5263. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_202207_29316.
OBJECTIVE: Vaccination is an important method for preventing COVID-19 infection. However, certain vaccines do not meet the current needs. To improve the vaccine effect, discard ineffective antigens, and focus on high-quality antigenic clusters, S1-E bivalent antigens were designed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vaccine delivery is performed using poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Here, the recombinant S1-E (rS1-E) was covered on PLGA and injected intramuscularly into mice. In total, 48 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into six groups with 8 mice in each group. The mice received intramuscular injections. Prior to vaccination, the hydrophobicity of the rS1-E and the antigenic site of the E protein were both analysed. The morphology, zeta potential, and particle size distribution of rS1-E-PLGA were examined. Anti-S1 and anti-E antibodies were detected in mouse serum by ELISA. Neutralising an-tibodies were detected by co-incubating the pseudovirus with the obtained serum. IL-2 and TNF-α levels were also measured.
RESULTS: The designed recombinant S1-E protein was successfully coated on PLGA nanoparticles. rS1-E-PLGA nanovaccine has suitable size, shape, good stability, sustained release and other characteristics. Importantly, mice were stimulated with rS1-E-PLGA nanovaccines to produce high-titre antibodies and a good cellular immune response.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that rS1-E-PLGA nanovaccine may provide a good protective effect, and the vaccine should be further investigated in human clinical trials for use in vaccination or as a booster.