TiO2 nanostructured implant surface-mediated M2c polarization of inflammatory monocyte requiring intact cytoskeleton rearrangement

J Nanobiotechnology. 2023 Jan 2;21(1):1. doi: 10.1186/s12951-022-01751-9.


BACKGROUND: Microgravity directly disturbs the reorganization of the cytoskeleton, exerting profound effects on the physiological process of macrophages. Although it has been established that macrophage M1/M2 polarization could be manipulated by the surface nanostructure of biomaterial in our previous study under normal gravity, how will inflammatory monocytes (iMos)-derived macrophages respond to diverse nanostructured Ti surfaces under normal gravity or microgravity remains unrevealed.

RESULTS: In this study, Cytochalasin D, a cytoskeleton relaxant, was employed to establish the simulated microgravity (SMG) environment. Our results showed that human iMos polarized into M2c macrophages on NT5 surface but M1 type on NT20 surface with divergent inflammatory phenotypes according to the profile of macrophage polarization featured molecules under normal gravity. However, such manipulative effects of NTs surfaces on iMos-derived macrophages were strikingly weakened by SMG, characterized by the altered macrophage morphology, changed cytokine secretion profile, and decreased cell polarization capacity.

CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first metallic implantable material study focusing on the functions of specific monocyte subsets and its crucial role of the cytoskeleton in materials-mediated host immune response, which enriches our mechanism knowledge about the crosstalk between immunocytes and biomaterials. The results obtained in the present study may also provide potential targets and strategies for biomaterial development and clinical treatment via precise immune-regulation under normal gravity and microgravity.

PMID:36593461 | PMC:PMC9809010 | DOI:10.1186/s12951-022-01751-9


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