PLoS One. 2022 Sep 15;17(9):e0272924. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0272924. eCollection 2022.
Soil acidity with associated low nutrient availability is one of the major constraints to soybean production in southwestern Ethiopia. Integrated use of lime and acid-tolerant crops is believed to reduce soil acidity and improve crop production. The experiment was conducted in the field condition of Mettu, southwestern Ethiopia during the 2017/18 main cropping season. The experiment comprised fifteen soybean genotypes and two soil amendment (lime and unlimed) treatments arranged in a split-plot design with three replications. For each treatment, four rows were planted per plot; data related to growth, root, nodule, and yield of the crop were collected at a necessary stage for each. Liming and genotype interaction had significantly (P = 0.01) affected all parameters considered except for hundred seed weight and root volume and were affected only by the main effects of genotypes and liming. A significant reduction for most parameters was found on lime-untreated soil than treated soil. Though some genotypes showed higher performance for root, growth parameters, and yield components under unlimed soils; however, gave higher yield and yield components, when grown on lime-untreated with an average yield reduction of 13.7%, due to soil acidity. The maximum grain yield of (1943.93 kg ha-1) was obtained under lime treated acid soil from PI567046A genotype; while the lowest (510.49 kg ha-1) were recorded from SCS-1genotype under the lime untreated acid soil. Genotype BRS268 showed higher yield (1319.83 kg ha-1) under lime untreated acid soil than lime treated acid soil (1143.47 kg ha-1) and showed less reduction percentage for a number of the nodules, root weight, and number of seeds per plant; while PI567046A showed high reduction percentage for yield, biomass, number of pod and seed per plant. A high difference was observed among the soybean genotypes for soil acidity tolerance, which might be further exploited by breeders for the genetic improvement of soybean. Genotype BRS268 had performed better than other tested genotypes under increased soil acidity. selection would be effective to improve soybean genotypes performance on acid soils and identify low Phosphorus tolerant genotype that helps smallholder farmers optimize soybean productivity on acid soils in the study area. HAWASSA-04 variety is the most tolerant among the tested materials. However, further study is required by considering additional genotypes to reach a conclusive recommendation.