BMC Oral Health. 2022 Aug 8;22(1):331. doi: 10.1186/s12903-022-02266-3.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the postbrushing tooth-whitening effect of toothpaste containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HAPs). The impact of the concentration on the whitening performance of nano-HAP toothpaste was also investigated.
METHODS: Two concentrations of nano-HAP (10 wt% and 1 wt%) were incorporated in nonabrasive toothpastes. Forty bovine incisors were randomly assigned into four groups: 10 wt% nano-HAP, 1 wt% nano-HAP, toothpaste without nano-HAP as a negative control and water as a blank control. Each tooth was treated with the toothpaste three times and hydrodynamic shear force (HSF) once. The teeth surfaces were observed by SEM after each application. Tooth color (L*, a* and b* values) was measured by a spectrophotometer, and color changes (△E, △L, △a and △b values) were calculated. Two-way mixed ANOVA was performed to evaluate the influence of the concentration and repeated application on the tooth-whitening effect of nano-HAP.
RESULTS: We found that nano-HAP-treated enamel exhibited higher L* values and lower a* and b* values than the control groups (P < 0.05). The 10 wt% nano-HAP group showed significantly higher △E values than the 1 wt% nano-HAP group (P < 0.05). After three applications, the △E mean value of the 10 wt% nano-HAP group was 4.47. The △E and △L values were slightly reduced after HSF (P < 0.05). For both nano-HAP groups, HAP single crystallites and agglomerates were identified, and their sizes grew with nano-HAP reapplication.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, nano-HAP toothpaste has a satisfying postbrushing whitening effect and good resistance to mechanical forces. The whitening effect seemed to be concentration-dependent.