Environmental issues have become a major concern for policymakers faced with the threat of global warming. The European Climate Energy Package is an ambitious plan which drives the trajectories of European countries in three directions: reducing greenhouse gas emissions, increasing the share of renewable energy and improving energy efficiency. This article is original in that it considers the three targets together using multidimensional data analysis methods, a methodology which makes it possible to propose temporal and spatial typologies for the energy transition of European countries over the period 2000-2019. Results show evidence of a gradual transition over three sub-periods towards a more environmentally conscious economy. Four distinct types of energy transition profiles are identified, highlighting the contrasting performances of EU Members in terms of energy transition. In particular, some economically more advanced countries, namely Germany, Ireland, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, are lagging in achieving their targets. Finally, discriminant analyses suggest that economic performance, trade performance, innovation system and policy mix design have been particularly effective in promoting energy transition over the period 2000-2019, while only innovation system helps to explain the contrasting results observed at country level over that time.