Trajectory of Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and Malnourishment Predict Mortality and Kidney Failure in Older Adults With Chronic Kidney Disease

Front Med (Lausanne). 2021 Nov 29;8:760391. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.760391. eCollection 2021.


Objective: The trajectory patterns of estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) older adults with malnourishment and their association with subsequent patient outcomes have not been elucidated. We aimed to assess the eGFR trajectory patterns for predicting patient survival and kidney failure in the elderly without or with malnourishment. Materials and Methods: Based on a prospective longitudinal cohort, CKD patients aged 65 years or older were enrolled from 2001 to 2013. Among the 3,948 patients whose eGFR trajectory patterns were analyzed, 1,872 patients were stratified by the absence or presence of malnourishment, and 765 patients were identified and categorized as having malnourishment. Four eGFR trajectory patterns [gradual decline (T0), early non-decline and then persistent decline (T1), persistent increase (T2), and low baseline and then progressive increase (T3)] were classified by utilizing a linear mixed-effect model with a quadratic term in time. The malnourishment was defined as body mass index < 22 kg/m2, serum albumin < 3.0 mg/dL, or Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) < 98. This study assessed the effectiveness of eGFR trajectory patterns in a median follow-up of 2.27 years for predicting all-cause mortality and kidney failure. Results: The mean age was 76.9 ± 6.7 years, and a total of 82 (10.7%) patients with malnourishment and 57 (5.1%) patients without malnourishment died at the end of the study. Compared with the reference trajectory T0, the overall mortality of T1 was markedly reduced [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.83]. In patients with trajectory, T3 was associated with a high risk for kidney failure (aHR = 5.68, 95% CI 3.12-10.4) compared with the reference, especially higher risk in the presence of malnourishment. Patients with high GNRI values were significantly associated with a lower risk of death and kidney failure, but patients with malnourishment and concomitant alcohol consumption had a higher risk of kidney failure. Conclusions: Low baseline eGFR and progressively increasing eGFR trajectory were high risks for kidney failure in CKD patients. These findings may be attributed to multimorbidity, malnourishment, and decompensation of renal function.

PMID:34912823 | PMC:PMC8666586 | DOI:10.3389/fmed.2021.760391


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