Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of pyrimidines and their fused derivatives: A review

Ultrason Sonochem. 2021 Jul 27;79:105683. doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2021.105683. Online ahead of print.


The pyrimidine scaffold is present in many bioactive drugs; therefore, efficient synthetic routes that provide shorter reaction times, higher yields, and site-selective reactions are constantly being sought. Ultrasound (US) irradiation has emerged as an alternative energy source in the synthesis of these heterocyclic scaffolds, and over the last ten years there has been a significant increase in the number of publications mentioning US in either the construction or derivatization of the pyrimidine core. This review presents a detailed summary (with 140 references) of the effects of US (synergic or not) on the construction and derivatization of the pyrimidine core through classical reactions (e.g., multicomponent, cyclocondensation, cycloaddition, and alkylation reactions). The main points that were taken into consideration are as follows: chemo- and regioselectivity issues, and the results of conventional heating methods compared to US and mechanistic insights that are also presented and discussed for key reactions.

PMID:34562732 | DOI:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2021.105683


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