Validity of smartphone-based retinal photography (PEEK-retina) compared to the standard ophthalmic fundus camera in diagnosing diabetic retinopathy in Uganda: A cross-sectional study

PLoS One. 2022 Sep 6;17(9):e0273633. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0273633. eCollection 2022.


INTRODUCTION: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus and is a significant cause of blindness worldwide. In Uganda, the prevalence of diabetes is approximately 2.7% of the urban population and 1% in rural areas. Many diabetics cannot access an eye exam due to the lack of less costly and user-friendly equipment that primary eye workers can use. Smartphone-based fundus photography allows for a cheap and mobile fundus examination. The study aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Portable Eye Examination Kit (PEEK) retina compared to a standard ophthalmic fundus camera (Zeiss Visucam 200) for the diagnosis of DR.

METHODS: From January-March 2020, 286 people with diabetes (type 1 & 2) patients were seen at Kiruddu National referral hospital diabetes clinic. All participants had funduscopy with PEEK retina and the standard ophthalmic fundus camera following ophthalmic examination and pupillary dilation. The PEEK retina’s sensitivity, specificity and reliability were determined using an ophthalmic fundus camera as the gold standard.

RESULTS: The participants’ mean age was 51 with a standard deviation of ±11years, 213 (74.5%) were females, and the majority (93.4%) had Type 2 diabetes. The overall Sensitivity of PEEK retina for DR was 84% (95% CI 70.9-83.5), while the specificity was 79.9% (95% CI 76-83.5) with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 30.9% (95% CI 23.2-39.4) and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 97.9% (95% CI 95.9-99.1).

CONCLUSIONS: PEEK retina has high sensitivity and specificity, making it suitable for screening and diagnostic purposes. Therefore, we recommend the integration of the PEEK retina in the screening and diagnosis of DR in resource-limited settings.

PMID:36067194 | PMC:PMC9447889 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0273633


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