Heliyon. 2022 Oct 18;8(10):e11117. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e11117. eCollection 2022 Oct.
Continuous environmental degradation, volatility in the oil market, and unimpressive functioning of fossil-based (FB) fuels in compression ignition engines have expanded the tempo of the search for alternative fuels. Due to the astronomical rise in global population, improved agricultural, commercial, and manufacturing activities, enhanced farming and other food production and utilization ventures, agricultural waste generation, renewable fuel consumption, and emission of toxic gases. The need for cost-effective, readily available, and environmentally benign agricultural waste to biofuels has never been more crucial. Biofuels are renewable, biodegradable, low-cost, and eco-friendly fuels that are produced by microorganisms from waste lignocellulosic biomass. Conversion of agricultural wastes to biofuel does not exacerbate food security, contributes to waste management, prevents environmental degradation, and ensures energy security. This study reviews the conversion of agricultural wastes into biofuels with special emphasis on bioethanol, biohydrogen, biobutanol, biomethane, biomethanol, and biodiesel for various applications. It is safe to conclude that wastes generated from agricultural activities and processes are useful and can be harnessed to meet the affordable and accessible global renewable energy target. The result of this investigation will improve the body of knowledge and provide novel strategies and pathways for the utilization of agricultural wastes. Going forward, more collaborative and interdisciplinary studies are required to evolve state-of-the-art, ecofriendly, and cost-effective conversion pathways for agricultural wastes to promote the utilization of the generated renewable fuels. More human, financial, and infrastructural investments are desirable to motivate the conversion of agricultural waste into biofuels to ensure environmental sanitation and sustainability, promote renewable fuel utilization, and avert the raging implosion of our planet.