Vermicomposting of Pleurotus eryngii spent mushroom substrates and the possible mechanisms of vermicompost suppressing nematode disease caused by Meloidogyne incognita

Heliyon. 2023 Apr 1;9(4):e15111. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e15111. eCollection 2023 Apr.


The mushroom industry produces a large amount of spent mushroom substrate (SMS), which requires a large geographical footprint and causes pollution. Vermicomposting is a low-cost technology for its value in recycling of organic wastes and production of beneficial organic fertilizers. In this study, the changes of physicochemical properties was characterized during vermicomposting of Pleurotus eryngii SMS with cow dung (CD) as amendment. The efficiency and possible mechanisms of vermicompost suppressing disease induced by Meloidogyne incognita was also investigated. Six combinations with different ratios of SMS and cow dung (CD) was included in the vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida. Effect of vermicompost against disease induced by M. incognita on tobacco was conducted under greenhouse condition. And the possible mechanisms of vermicompost suppressing M. incognita was investigated by evaluated the species diversity of nematode-trapping fungi (NTF) in soil, and the defense response enzymes in tobacco. The combination of 65% SMS +35% CD was more suitable for vermicomposting, in which the highest vermicompost production (57%) and earthworm biomass increment (268%) were achieved. Additionally, the reduction in pH, total organic carbon, carbon: nitrogen ratio, and the pronounced elevation in four overall nutrient status were also observed. Soil amended with vermicompost (100:1 w/w) showed 61% control efficiency against nematode disease caused by M. incognita on tobacco, which significantly higher than that of the normal compost (24%). Comparing to the normal compost, the potential mechanism of vermicompost suppressing M. incognita could be rely on promoting species diversity of NTF in soil and enhancing the activities of the defense response enzymes in tobacco plant. Our findings indicate that vermicomposting is a promising technology for recycling of P. eryngii SMS, and the resulting vermicompost as organic fertilizer can be sued for management of the diseases caused by root-knot nematodes. This study establish a sustainable avenue for P. eryngii SMS disposal and a practical manner for controlling pathogens.

PMID:37095925 | PMC:PMC10121783 | DOI:10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e15111


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