RSC Adv. 2023 Jan 3;13(2):770-780. doi: 10.1039/d2ra07442g. eCollection 2023 Jan 3.
Solar-to-fuel conversion is a novel clean energy approach that has gained the interest of many researchers. Solar-driven photocatalysts have become essential to providing valuable fuel gases such as methane and hydrogen. Solar energy has emerged as a renewable, abundant energy source that can efficiently drive photochemical reactions through plasmonic photocatalysis. As a capping agent, orange peel extract was used in this study in a microwave-assisted green method to incorporate titanium dioxide with distinct amounts (3, 5, and 7 wt%) from Pd-plasmonic nanoparticles (2-5 nm). The leading role for plasmonic nanoparticles made from Pd-metal is enhancing the photocatalyst’s ability to capture visible light, improving its performance. X-Ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area analysis, and UV-vis DRS analyses have investigated the obtained plasmonic photocatalysts’ crystallographic, morphological, and optical characteristics. The UV-vis absorption spectra demonstrated the visible light absorption capacity attributed to the localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR) behavior of the newly formed nanoplasmonic photocatalysts. The generated Pd-TiO2 nanomaterials’ photocatalytic activity has been examined and evaluated for combustible gas production, including the formation of CH4 and H2 from the photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Yellow 15 (RY) during a deoxygenated photoreaction in a homemade solar photobiogas reactor.