Biosensors (Basel). 2022 Oct 12;12(10):860. doi: 10.3390/bios12100860.
This work reports the development and application of a simple, rapid and low-cost voltammetric method for the determination of 3-methylmorphine at nanomolar levels in clinical and environmental samples. The proposed method involves the combined application of a glassy carbon electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide, chitosan and bismuth film (Bi-rGO-CTS/GCE) via square-wave voltammetry using 0.04 mol L-1 Britton-Robinson buffer solution (pH 4.0). The application of the technique yielded low limit of detection of 24 × 10-9 mol L-1 and linear concentration range of 2.5 × 10-7 to 8.2 × 10-6 mol L-1. The Bi-rGO-CTS/GCE sensor was successfully applied for the detection of 3-methylmorphine in the presence of other compounds, including paracetamol and caffeine. The results obtained also showed that the application of the sensor for 3-methylmorphine detection did not experience any significant interference in the presence of silicon dioxide, povidone, cellulose, magnesium stearate, urea, ascorbic acid, humic acid and croscarmellose. The applicability of the Bi-rGO-CTS/GCE sensor for the detection of 3-methylmorphine was evaluated using synthetic urine, serum, and river water samples through addition and recovery tests, and the results obtained were found to be similar to those obtained for the high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC)-used as a reference method. The findings of this study show that the proposed voltammetric method is a simple, fast and highly efficient alternative technique for the detection of 3-methylmorphine in both biological and environmental samples.