Waste rubber seeds as a renewable energy source: direct biodiesel production using a controlled crushing device

RSC Adv. 2022 Jan 13;12(4):2094-2101. doi: 10.1039/d1ra08298a. eCollection 2022 Jan 12.

ABSTRACT

A multistep and high-cost biodiesel production could be simplified using the direct transesterification (DT) method. A controllable device has been developed and applied to study the effects of the ratio of rubber seeds to methanol, catalyst concentration, reaction time and rotational speed on biodiesel conversion and fatty acid (FA) yield extraction. The controllable crushing device (CCD) assisted the DT of rubber seeds and operated at ambient temperature and pressure achieved a maximum biodiesel conversion of 97.5 ± 0.6% in a reaction time of 7 minutes. The biodiesel quality estimated based on the FA extraction profile is comparable with the biodiesel standard. In terms of energy efficiency and reaction time, the CCD saved 71-98% energy consumption and reduced the reaction time up to 99%.

PMID:35425230 | PMC:PMC8979086 | DOI:10.1039/d1ra08298a

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